domingo, 30 de noviembre de 2014

Las presiones de la EPS para los médicos en Colombia

La revista Semana publica hoy una denuncia de las actuaciones de las Empresas Promotoras de Salud (EPS) en Colombia, las cuales presionan de manera indebida y sin ética a los médicos que trabajan para ellas, poniendo en riesgo la salud y vida de los pacientes y dejando a la profesión médica en una situación lamentable, sin ninguna autonomía en sus decisiones y poniéndolos a dar la cara por las malas actuaciones administrativas de los directivos de las EPS, Todo esto avalado por el director de ACEMI (la asociación de EPS), el señor Jaime Arias quien fue ministro de salud, pero que ahora es un aliado de los interesados en ofrecer servicios de "mucha cobertura", pero con salud de bajísima calidad y ocasionando no en pocas veces,el empeoramiento de la salud o la muerte de los pacientes, por las trabas administrativas que ponen. En el artículo hay varias pruebas que ejemplifican las actuaciones perversas de las EPS, Por ejemplo esta en que se le pide a los médicos no decirle a los pacientes que se van a restringir las ayudas diagnósticas y que no se van a ordenar cirugías electivas: http://static.iris.net.co/semana/upload/images/2014/11/26/410232_102956_1.jpg 
Este tipo de actuaciones de las EPS se deben dar a conocer a la opinión pública y se deben denunciar ante los organismos competentes y exigirle al estado colombiano que tome medidas severas y urgentes para proteger la salud de los colombianos. 
Por favor difundan esta información entre sus amigos, colegas y familiares, porque esto nos afecta a TODOS.
Para ver el artículo hagan click por favor AQUÍ.

sábado, 22 de noviembre de 2014

No usemos antibióticos para las gripes

El problema del uso indebido de antibióticos en el mundo ha acrecentado la resistencia bacteriana a éstos y se volvió un problema de salud pública internacional.


Aquí les dejo el meme que yo hice hace algún tiempo relacionado con el tema:


martes, 4 de noviembre de 2014

Manejo basado en la evidencia de la anemia de células falciformes. Guía 2014


El instituto nacional de salud de los Estados Unidos publica estas guías para el manejo de la Anemia Falciforme, realizado por un panel de expertos.
Obviamente está muy completa e incluye el manejo del dolor, las complicaciones agudas y crónicas, el tratamiento con hidroxiurea y las transfusiones sanguíneas entre otras cosas.
Para los interesados en esta enfermedad, pueden descargar la guía haciendo click AQUÍ.

domingo, 2 de noviembre de 2014

Casos Clínicos de Cuidado Intensivo Pediátrico

En la imagen al final de esta entrada encontrarán casos clínicos que vienen en forma de libro, de situaciones reales que se pueden presentar en una unidad de cuidado intensivo pediátrico.
Está dirigido especialmente a los residentes de pediatría.
El link del libro es tomado de la SECIP (Sociedad y Fundación Española de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos).
Para descargarlo pueden hacer click sobre la imagen siguiente:

viernes, 31 de octubre de 2014

Cambio de Imagen de Pipediatra

Los cambios de look son necesarios para refrescar la imagen, sino, pregúnteles a las mujeres. PIPEDIATRA no puede ser la excepción. Esta vez los colores claros y más tranquilos son los que predominan. También se amplia la información y el ancho de las entradas, que se acoplan mejor a las pantallas. Tiene algo de publicidad que le permito poner a Google y que puede tener relación con la pediatría y ser de interés para ustedes.
El blog PIPEDIATRA ya es un niño de 8 años de edad que espera que todos ustedes lo sigan acompañando en su crecimiento y contándole a sus amigos y compañeros de estudio o trabajo acerca de él.
Espero que les guste el nuevo diseño.

jueves, 30 de octubre de 2014

Bronquiolitis: Nuevas guías de la AAP 2014

La Academia Americana de Pediatría publicó On-Line en la revista Pediatrics las Nuevas Guías para el diagnóstico, tratamiento y prevención de la Bronquiolitis.
Son la actualización de las publicadas en 2006, tengo que reconocer que las tengo que leer a fondo, pero entre los cambios más llamativos están:

  • El Palivizumab sólo está indicado en menores de 29 semanas o aquellos pacientes mayores de esa edad gestacional y menores de un año con enfermedades crónicas pulmonares o cardiopatías significativas
  • No es necesario pedir pruebas diagnósticas para virus (Por ejemplo: panel viral, VRS) ya que la bronquiolitis es causada por varias clases de virus.
  • Clasificar a los pacientes con posibilidad de enfermedad severa: Prematuros, menores de 3 meses, inmunosuprimidos, enfermedad cardiopulmonar de base.
  • No Rx ni exámenes de laboratorio de rutina.


Hay más en el artículo para que se animen a leerlo y estudiarlo.
Para descargarlas hagan click por favor AQUÍ.

miércoles, 29 de octubre de 2014

Reflexión de hoy 29 de octubre de 2014: Consejos para los padres acerca la Crianza

Complementando la reflexión de ayer acerca de la crianza, el oracional "El Man está Vivo" nos deja hoy 5 consejos para los padres de familia acerca de la crianza:


  1. Elegir muy bien nuestros amigos. Es muy común que los hijos de nuestros amigos sean los amigos de nuestros hijos. Luego, deben ser personas con las que coincidamos en los valores fundamentales. No podemos hacer grupo con aquellos que tienen unos valores de vida totalmente opuestos y pretender que estos no influyan en nuestros hijos.
  2. Elegir muy bien el colegio en el que van a estudiar nuestros hijos. No me refiero solamente a lo académico que es fundamental. No podemos pretender que nuestros hijos tengan compañeros de valores, como los nuestros, si estudian en un colegio donde los énfasis axiológicos son bien distintos a los tuyos o brillan por su ausencia.Esto implica que haya una unidad entre escuela y casa que garantice un buen proyecto formativo.
  3. Tenemos que conocer y estar cerca de los amigos de nuestros hijos. No somos detectives ni queremos serlo, pero tampoco podemos estar lejos y desinformados de la influencia de estos. Nuestros hijos aprenden muchos de aquellos con los que juegan y comparten espacios en su vida diaria.
  4. Estar atentos a los juegos y contenidos comunicacionales que ellos consumen. Hay que enseñarlos a ser críticos, a no tragar entero, a analizarlo todo y a saber que muchas de las dinámicas de los medios están montadas por la edición que siempre es ideológica. Hay que generar auténticos foros en los que quede claro cuáles son los valores que empujan esos juegos y esas ofertas comunicacionales.
  5. Hay que propiciar espacios espirituales en los que en un lenguaje y un interés adecuado le puedan generar gusto por los valores trascendentales tan importantes para la vida.
Espero que apliquen estos consejos y usen su buen juicio y criterio para la crianza de los niños, que siempre debe ser humanizada.

martes, 28 de octubre de 2014

Reflexión para hoy 28 de octubre de 2014: Acerca de la crianza

Esta reflexión la tomé del oracional: "!El Man está Vivo!" de la congregación Eudista Minuto de Dios.  Este "librito" mensual es una fuente de reflexión permanente para mi y los invito a adquirirlo, ya que les enriquecerá la vida y está disponible a un bajo precio muy asequible. Muchas gracias al Padre Alberto Linero por darnos ese regalo de vida.

El mundo cambió. Ya no es el mismo que vivimos en nuestra infancia. Los medios de comunicación y la tecnología lo han cambiado de manera radical. Lo achicaron hasta el punto de que sabemos lo que pasa en el pueblo más lejano a nosotros en muy poco tiempo. Lo aceleraron hasta el punto en que nos comunicamos en segundos con cualquier parte del planeta. Lo complejizaron hasta el punto en que ya no sabemos con claridad qué es realmente la realidad y qué es lo virtual. Lo fragmentaron tanto que tenemos especialidades que antes eran impensables. es un mundo atractivo, confortable -por lo menos más que antes- y desafiante. Ese es el mundo en el que hacemos el acto de amor llamado crianza. Es allí donde acompañamos a nuestros niños y jóvenes en la construcción de su autonomía. Lo cual exige todas unas miradas, concepciones, pedagogías y maneras nuevas Te propongo que pensemos en este contexto la dimensión social de la crianza. Nuestros hijos no viven solos en el mundo. Ellos están en permanente y abierta relación con otros jóvenes, lo cual hace que nuestra manera de criarlos esté en constante cuestionamiento al ser comparada con los papás de los otros jóvenes. No es de extrañar que tus criterios de crianza sean considerados por otros como obsoletos, dinosáuricos y dañinos. Lo que te pone en una situación difícil ante tus hijos que, por la presión del medio, comienzan a sospechar que tú estás equivocado. Hay que poner mucha atención a la manera como tenemos que criar en medio de tantas visiones de la vida, propuestas pedagógicas y aún reflexiones éticas. Debemos tener claro cuáles son los valores que asuman nuestros hijos y ayudarles a hacerlo. Está claro que lo primero es ser modelo para ellos. Si nosotros no practicamos los valores que queremos tengan ellos estamos perdiendo el tiempo.

martes, 21 de octubre de 2014

viernes, 17 de octubre de 2014

Los 500 más comunes

Muchas preguntas que nos hacen los profesores en nuestra carrera de medicina empiezan así: ¿Cuál es la causa MÁS COMÚN de...?, ¿Cuál es el tipo MÁS COMÚN de...?, ¿Cuál es la etiología MÁS COMÚN de...?, etcétera.
Pues aquí les dejo 500 preguntas de este tipo con sus respuestas. Están en inglés, así que les sirve un poco para practicarlo y hay algunas siglas que habría que averiguar que significan. También pueden usar el traductor de google si es necesario.
Espero que les sea de utilidad:


500 MOST COMMONs...

1. Most common aortic branch involved in Takayasu arteritis : Left subclavian
2. Most common cause of respiratory distress in newborn : Transient tachypnea of the newborn
3. Most common location to see Asbestosis sequale : Posterior lower lobes.
4. Most common karyotype / chromosomal abnormality in USA : Down’s syndrome
5. Most common osseous lymphoma, primary and secondary : Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
6. Most common primary malignant orbital tumor in childhood : Rhabdomyosarcoma
7. Most common type of fluid collection in scrotum : Hydrocele
8. Most common type of liposarcoma to affect children : Myxoid liposarcoma
9. Most common abdominal emergency of early childhood : Intussusception.
10. Most common acetabular fracture : Posterior acetabulum.
11. Most common affected bowel segment in TB : Ileocecal area.
12. Most common affected joint in gout : First MTP.
13. Most common AIDS-related neoplasm : Kaposi Sarcoma
14. Most common allergic aspergillosis syndrome : Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.
15. Most common anatomic variant of pancreas : Pancreas divisum
16. Most common anomalous course of RCA : Interarterial
17. Most common appearance of Legionella at the peak of the disease : Bilateral airspace consolidation.
18. Most common assoc. w/ Fx of great toe distal phalanx with physeal involvement :Osteomyelitis.
19. Most common associated anomaly with coarctation : Bicuspid valve.
20. Most common association of PAPVR : Sinus venosus type ASD.
21. Most common association with small left colon syndrome : Maternal DM
22. Most common bacterial cause of mesenteric adenitis : Yersinia enterocolitica.
23. Most common benign cardiac rhythm abnormality : PAC
24. Most common benign cartilage-containing tumor : Osteochondroma
25. Most common benign growth of the skeleton : Osteochondroma
26. Most common benign hepatic lesion : Hemangioma
27. Most common benign hepatic tumor during fist 6 mo. of life : Infantile Hemangioendothelioma
28. Most common benign intraconal tumor of the orbit in adults : Cavernous hemangiomas.
29. Most common benign masses caused by asbestos exposure : Atelectatic Asbestos Pseudotumor
30. Most common benign mesenchymal tumor of kidney : AML
31. Most common benign mucosal tumor of the esophagus : Papilloma
32. Most common benign nasopharyngeal tumor : Juvenile angiofibroma.
33. Most common benign orbital tumor in childhood : Dermoid Cyst of Orbit
34. Most common benign ovarian neoplasm in young and middle-aged women ( under 45 years): Mature teratoma
35. Most common benign radiation-induced tumor of the musculoskeletal system : Osteochondroma
36. Most common benign rib lesion in an adult : Fibrous dysplasia.
37. Most common benign soft-tissue tumor of the foot : Plantar fibromatosis
38. Most common benign soft-tissue tumor of vascular origin : Hemangioma
39. Most common benign solid tumor in women of childbearing age : Fibroadenoma
40. Most common benign testicular mass : Simple cyst
41. Most common benign tumor of spleen : Hemangioma
42. Most common benign tumor of the larynx : Squamous papilloma
43. Most common benign tumor of the lung : Hamartoma
44. Most common benign tumor of the small bowel : GIST
45. Most common benign vascular gastric tumor : Glomus tumor of stomach.
46. Most common bilateral testicular tumor : Lymphoma
47. Most common biliary complication s/p lap. cholecystectomy : Bile duct leak from cystic duct stump.
48. Most common biliary complication s/p liver transplantation : Obstruction/stenosis at anastomosis.
49. Most common bladder neoplasm in children younger than 10 years : Rhabdomyosarcoma
50. Most common bone to develop an osteochondroma : Femur (tibia second most common)
51. Most common brain anomaly on prenatal sonograms : Isolated Mild Ventriculomegaly
52. Most common breast tumor under age 25 years : Fibroadenoma
53. Most common cardiac manifestation of Systemic Lupus Erythematous : Pericarditis
54. Most common cardiac tumor in children : Rhabdomyoma.
55. Most common cardiac valvular tumor : Papillary fibroelastoma
56. Most common carpal dislocation : Transscaphoid perilunate dislocation.
57. Most common causative organism of acute pyogenic meningitis in adults : Strep. pneumoniae
58. Most common causative organism of neonatal pyogenic meningitis : E. coli
59. Most common cause for failure of dialysis graft : Fibrointimal hyperplasia : venous outflow stenosis.
60. Most common cause for late failure in lung transplant patient : Bronchiolitis obliterans
61. Most common cause for pulmonary edema : Left-sided heart disease
62. Most common cause non iatrogenic cause of small bowel obstruction : Hernia
63. Most common cause of a large choroid plexus cyst : Trisomy 18.
64. Most common cause of a large pleural fluid collection in the newborn period : Chylothorax
65. Most common cause of acute renal failure in children requiring dialysis : HUS
66. Most common cause of acute testicular pain in postpubertal male : Acute epididymitis
67. Most common cause of acute testicular pain in prepubertal male : Torsion
68. Most common cause of AIDS cholangiopathy : Cryptosporidium
69. Most common cause of an echogenic renal mass in a 3-month-old : Mesoblastic nephroma.
70. Most common cause of an intraorbital mass lesion in adult : Pseudotumor of Orbit
71. Most common cause of AS in Western world : Degenerative disease
72. Most common cause of bilateral breast edema : CHF.
73. Most common cause of bilateral echogenic renal cortex : Chronic glomerulonephritis.
74. Most common cause of biliary obstruction : Choledocholithiasis
75. Most common cause of bleeding between menstrual cycles : Endometrial hyperplasia.
76. Most common cause of bronchopneumonia : Staphylococcal
77. Most common cause of cancer deaths in males and females : Bronchogenic Carcinoma
78. Most common cause of cause of infectious esophagitis : Candida Esophagitis
79. Most common cause of cavitary (necrotic) pneumonia in a child : Strep pneum.
80. Most common cause of Charcot joints : Diabetes mellitus
81. Most common cause of CHF in a child : ALCAPA / aberrant left coronary artery
82. Most common cause of CHF in a neonate : Hypoplastic Left Heart.
83. Most common cause of chronic hydronephrosis in renal transplant : UV anastomosis stricture.
84. Most common cause of colonic obstruction in adults : Malignancy
85. Most common cause of colonic obstruction in the infant : Meconium plug syndrome in CF patients
86. Most common cause of colovesical fistula : Diverticulitis
87. Most common cause of congenital CNS infection : CMV.
88. Most common cause of congenital duodenal obstruction : Duodenal atresia.
89. Most common cause of congenital sensorineural hearing loss : Giant vestibular aqueduct syndrome
90. Most common cause of cord ischemia : Thromboembolic disease
91. Most common cause of coronary artery aneurysm in USA : Atherosclerosis
92. Most common cause of coronary artery aneurysm Worldwide : Kawasaki
93. Most common cause of cyanosis in a child : Tetralogy of Fallot
94. Most common cause of cyanosis n newborn Transposition of great vessels
95. Most common cause of death in a severe pelvic fracture : Hemorrhage.
96. Most common cause of death in Ataxia –Telangiectasia : Respiratory failure.
97. Most common cause of death in Jeune syndrome : Respiratory failure
98. Most common cause of drop mets : Medulloblastoma
99. Most common cause of dwarfism : Achondroplasia
100. Most common cause of echogenic renal pyramids in children : Furosemide
101. Most common cause of ejaculatory duct obstruction : Mullerian duct cyst ?
102. Most common cause of endometriosis in girls under 16 years: Obstructive müllerian duct anomalies
103. Most common cause of end-stage renal disease : Diabetic Nephropathy
104. Most common cause of epididymitis in males aged 15 to 35 years : Sexually transmitted diseases
105. Most common cause of esophageal rupture : Iatrogenic
106. Most common cause of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in patients under 30 years: CF
107. Most common cause of facial hemipalsy : Bell palsy
108. Most common cause of false-positive V/Q scan for acute PE : Previous pulmonary embolism
109. Most common cause of fungal infection in AIDS patients : Cryptococcosis
110. Most common cause of gastrocolic fistula : Gastric ulcer.
111. Most common cause of heart failure in patients with COPD : Atherosclerotic heart disease
112. Most common cause of hemifacial spasticity is vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia.
113. Most common cause of hepatic calcifications : Infection
114. Most common cause of hydronephrosis in the newborn male : Ureteropelvic junction
115. Most common cause of hyperreflexive bladder : Spinal cord trauma
116. Most common cause of increased nuchal thickness : Downs syndrome
117. Most common cause of interstitial and airspace edema : CHF
118. Most common cause of intradiaphragmatic cyst :Extralobar sequestration
119. Most common cause of intraventricular hemorrhage :Disruption of the subependymal veins
120. Most common cause of intussusception in children older than 6 years : Lymphoma
121. Most common cause of large spherical pancreatic calcifications in children : Hereditary pancreatitis
122. Most common cause of left atrial dilatation : Mitral regurgitation.
123. Most common cause of leukokoria : Retinoblastoma.
124. Most common cause of liver metastasis : Colon.
125. Most common cause of lower extremity venous valve dysfunction : DVT.
126. Most common cause of lower GI bleeding : Diverticulosis.
127. Most common cause of malignancy of men in the world -- Bronchogenic Carcinoma
128. Most common cause of maternal peripartum death : Amniotic fluid embolism
129. Most common cause of membranous croup : Staph. Aureus.
130. Most common cause of microcolon: Meconium ileus.
131. Most common cause of mortality in ulcerative colitis : Toxic megacolon.
132. Most common cause of necrolytic migrating erythema : Glucagonoma
133. Most common cause of neonatal nasal obstruction : Choanal atresia.
134. Most common cause of Neonatal Pneumonia : Group B streptococcus.
135. Most common cause of neonatal respiratory distress in full term/postmature infants – Meconium aspiration
136. Most common cause of nephrocalcinosis in adults : Primary hyperparathyroidism
137. Most common cause of non-immune hydrops in USA : Cardiac anomaly
138. Most common cause of optic nerve enlargement : Optic nerve glioma
139. Most common cause of orbital calcifications : Retinoblastoma
140. Most common cause of orbital infection : Paranasal sinusitis
141. Most common cause of osteoblastic bone metastases in an adult female : Breast cancer
142. Most common cause of osteoblastic bone metastases in an adult male : Prostate cancer
143. Most common cause of osteolytic bone metastases in a child : Neuroblastoma
144. Most common cause of osteolytic bone metastases in an adult female : Breast cancer
145. Most common cause of osteolytic bone metastases in an adult male : Lung cancer
146. Most common cause of Osteomyelitis of spine : Penetrating direct trauma
147. Most common cause of pancreatic lipomatosis in children : CF
148. Most common cause of pleural eosinophilia : Air in the pleural space
149. Most common cause of pneumoperitoneum : Ruptured duodenal ulcer.
150. Most common cause of postpartum fever : Endometritis.
151. Most common cause of pseudomyxoma peritonei : Appendiceal mucinous adenocarcinoma
152. Most common cause of pseudoureterocele : Bladder tumor
153. Most common cause of pulmonary hypoplasia : Diaphragmatic hernia
154. Most common cause of pulmonary tumor embolus : Gastric carcinoma
155. Most common cause of recurrent hip disloc. s/p hip arthroplasty : Acetabular component malposition
156. Most common cause of reflux in child w/ non-duplicated collecting system: Short intramural ureter.
157. Most common cause of renal vein thrombosis in adults : Nephrotic syndrome
158. Most common cause of restrictive cardiomyopathy : Amyloid
159. Most common cause of round pneumonia in children : Streptococcus.
160. Most common cause of round pneumonia in children : Streptococcus
161. Most common cause of small bowel obstruction : Adhesions
162. Most common cause of squamous cell ca. in the renal pelvis : Chronic Infected stag horn calculus
163. Most common cause of stridor in neonate and young infant : Laryngomalacia
164. Most common cause of sudden cardiac death among young people Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)
165. Most common cause of SVC syndrome : Bronchogenic carcinoma
166. Most common cause of testicular swelling : Hydrocele
167. Most common cause of the pulmonary-renal syndrome : Microscopic polyangitis.
168. Most common cause of the stripe sign on V/Q scan : COPD
169. Most common cause of thoracic outlet syndrome : Scalene anticus.
170. Most common cause of toxic mega colon : Pseudomembranous colitis.
171. Most common cause of tree in bud appearance on CT : Bronchiolitis
172. Most common cause of tricuspid stenosis : Rheumatic heart disease
173. Most common cause of unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis : Malignant invasion
174. Most common cause of unilateral nonperfused lung on V/Q scan : Bronchogenic carcinoma
175. Most common cause of unilateral pulmonary edema : Prolonged unilateral dependent positioning
176. Most common cause of urinary obstruction in boys : posterior urethral valves
177. Most common cause of valvular heart disease in the United States : Degenerative
178. Most common cause of vascular ring : Double arch.
179. Most common cause of vertebra plana in children : EG
180. Most common cause requiring bronchial artery embolization : CF
181. Most common cause worldwide for cholangiocarcinoma : Clonorchis sinensis infestation
182. Most common cerebellar neoplasm in children : Medulloblastoma
183. Most common cerebral mass lesion in AIDS : Toxoplasmosis
184. Most common chest radiograph finding seen in pts with an acute PE : Atelectasis
185. Most common chest x-ray abnormality in the ICU : Atelectasis
186. Most common child abuse facture : Diaphyseal fracture,
187. Most common collagen disorder for a pleural effusion : SLE
188. Most common colonic polyp : Hyperplastic polyp
189. Most common colonic site for lymphoma : Cecum
190. Most common complication of ERCP : Pancreatitis
191. Most common complication of popliteal artery aneurysm : Distal ischemia (thrombosis/embolism)
192. Most common complication with IVC filters : DVT.
193. Most common component of mixed germ cell tumors : Embryonal Cell Carcinoma
194. Most common congenital abnormality of GI tract : Meckel’s diverticulum
195. Most common congenital anomaly of CNS in live births : Myelomeningocele
196. Most common congenital defect of CNS : Anencephaly.
197. Most common congenital head and neck cyst in a child : Thornwaldt cyst
198. Most common congenital heart disease : Bicuspid aortic valve.
199. Most common congenital intracranial tumor : Epidermoid or inclusion cyst
200. Most common congenital lesion of bile ducts : Choledochal Cyst
201. Most common congenital skeletal dysplasia : Achondroplasia.
202. Most common congenital solid tumor in the newborn : Sacrococcygeal Teratoma (1:40K live births)
203. Most common cranial nerve affected by a pituitary macroadenoma : CN VI.
204. Most common cranial nerve to be affected with schwannoma : VIII
205. Most common craniofacial malformation : Facial Clefting
206. Most common crystalline arthropathy : CPPD
207. Most common CT finding in bowel ischemia : Bowel wall thickening.
208. Most common cyanotic congenital heart malformation beyond neonatal period : TOF
209. Most common cyst of the jaw : Radicular cyst = Periapical cyst
210. Most common cystic lesion of prostate : Cystic degeneration of BPH
211. Most common cystic tumor of pancreas : Mucinous cystic neoplasm
212. Most common diffuse breast disorder : Fibrocystic disease of breast.
213. Most common diffuse gray matter degenerative disease : Alzheimer’s
214. Most common dislocated auditory ossicle longitudinal temporal bone fracture : Incus
215. Most common dislocation in adult : Glenohumeral.
216. Most common dislocation in child : Elbow.
217. Most common epididymal neoplasm : Adenomatoid tumor
218. Most common estrogenic ovarian tumor : Granulosa Cell Tumor
219. Most common etiology for chronic temporal lobe epilepsy : Ganglioglioma
220. Most common etiology for multiple small gastric polyps : Hyperplastic polyps.
221. Most common etiology for osteomyelitis : Staphylococcus aureus.
222. Most common etiology of bilaterally enlarged, hyperechoic kidneys in newborn infant : ARPKD.
223. Most common etiology of mesenteric adenitis : Viral
224. Most common etiology of pneumomediastinum : Alveolar rupture.
225. Most common etiology of rickets : Vitamin D deficiency.
226. Most common extra-adrenal site of pheochromocytoma : Organ of Zuckerkandl.
227. Most common extraaxial neoplasm of CNS : Meningioma
228. Most common extragonadal site of primary germ cell tumors : Anterior mediastinum.
229. Most common extrapulmonary site of tuberculosis : Urinary tract
230. Most common fetal cardiac anomaly seen on 4 chamber view US : AV canal defect (aka ECD)
231. Most common fibromatosis in childhood : Infantile Myofibromatosis
232. Most common finding of a tubal pregnancy seen on US images Adnexal mass separate from ovary
233. Most common finding of contralateral kidney in MCKD : Reflux
234. Most common fluid collection seen in transplant patients : Lymphoceles.
235. Most common form of aortic stenosis : Valvular
236. Most common form of carpal instability : DISI
237. Most common form of emphysema in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency : Panlobular emphysema
238. Most common form of emphysema in nonsmokers : Panlobular emphysema
239. Most common form of emphysema in smokers : Centrilobular emphysema
240. Most common form of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy : Asymmetric involvement of the interventricular septum
241. Most common form of skeletal dysplasia : Acquired skeletal dysplasia.
242. Most common form of systemic vasculitis in adults : Giant cell (temporal) arteritis
243. Most common fracture of forearm : Colles
244. Most common functional tumors of the ovary : Sex cord–stromal tumors
245. Most common fungal infection in AIDS : Cryptococcus.
246. Most common genitourinary organ affected by neurofibromas : Urinary bladder
247. Most common germ cell tumor associated with excessive hCG production :Choriocarcinoma.
248. Most common germ cell tumor associated with excessive hCG production after choriocarcinoma : Dysgerminoma.
249. Most common GI neoplasm : Adenoma
250. Most common GI tract location for primary extranodal lymphoma : Stomach, usually NHL type.
251. Most common glial tumor in adults : Ependymoma
252. Most common glial tumor in NF 1 : JPA.
253. Most common glial tumor with microcalcifications : Oligodendroglioma
254. Most common gynecologic neoplasm : Uterine Leiomyoma
255. Most common hereditary hypercoagulable condition : Factor V Leiden
256. Most common hereditary leukodystrophy : Metachromatic leukodystrophy
257. Most common histologic type of bronchogenic carcinoma associated with cavitation : Squamous
258. Most common histologic type of bronchogenic carcinoma associated with pancoast tumor : Squamous
259. Most common histologic type of bronchogenic carcinoma associated with pleural effusion : Adenocarcinoma
260. Most common histologic type of lung cancer associated with asbestosis exposure : BAC
261. Most common histologic type of primary cutaneous lymphoma :T-cell lymphoma
262. Most common ILD to be found in association with collagen vascular disease : NSIP
263. Most common indication for percutaneous vertebroplasty : Osteoporosis.
264. Most common infection to cause cerebellar hypoplasia & migration anomalies : CMV
265. Most common infratentorial neoplasm in an adult : Metastases
266. Most common inherited disease among Caucasian Americans : CF
267. Most common internal enhancement pattern in DCIS with non mass like enhancement : Clumped enhancement
268. Most common intracranial for site of teratomas : Pineal region.
269. Most common intracranial presentation of TB : Tuberculous meningitis.
270. Most common intramedullary spinal neoplasm in adults : Ependymoma of Spinal Cord
271. Most common intramedullary tumor in children : Astrocytoma
272. Most common intramedullary tumor of adults : Ependymoma.
273. Most common intraocular neoplasm in childhood : Retinoblastoma
274. Most common intraorbital tumors found in adults : Cavernous hemangiomas.
275. Most common intrathoracic fetal anomaly : Congenital diaphragmatic Hernia
276. Most common intrathoracic foregut cyst : Bronchogenic Cyst
277. Most common intrauterine CNS infection : CMV
278. Most common intravascular venous tumor : Leiomyosarcoma of IVC
279. Most common in-utero renal tumor : Mesoblastic nephroma.
280. Most common invasive gynecologic malignancy : Endometrial malignancy
281. Most common islet cell tumor in MEN 1 : Gastrinoma
282. Most common islet cell tumor of the pancreas : Insulinoma.
283. Most common joint involved in synovial osteochondromatosis : Knee
284. Most common lesion to cause expansion of paranasal sinus : Mucocele
285. Most common lethal bone dysplasia : Osteogenesis imperfecta type II ?
286. Most common liver tumor after metastases : Hemangioma
287. Most common lobe affected in bronchial atresia : Left upper lobe.
288. Most common location for a cephalhematoma : Parietal
289. Most common location for a gastric diverticulum : Posterior wall of the gastric fundus.
290. Most common location for a pilocytic astrocytoma : Cerebellum
291. Most common location for a solitary myeloma of the bone : Thoracolumbar spine
292. Most common location for a synovial sarcoma : Knee
293. Most common location for a Tarlov cyst : Posterior rootlets of S2 + S3
294. Most common location for abdominal sarcoid involvement : Stomach
295. Most common location for atelectatic asbestos pseudotumor : Posteromedial & -lateral basal region of lower lobes
296. Most common location for chordomas : Sacral spine.
297. Most common location for gallbladder perforation : Fundus
298. Most common location for Sclerosing Osteomyelitis of Garré (sterile Osteomyelitis) : Mandible
299. Most common location for typhlitis : Cecum.
300. Most common location for well-differentiated liposarcoma : Thigh
301. Most common location in biliary tree for cholangiocarcinoma : Upper third/perihilar region.
302. Most common location in the spine for an osteochondroma : Cervical (C2) followed by thoracic T8
303. Most common location of a meningioma in the spine : Thoracic spinal cord
304. Most common location of a periurethral diverticulum in a female : Posterolateral.
305. Most common location of an ectopic pregnancy : Ampullary region of the fallopian tube.
306. Most common location of benign and malignant masses in breast : Upper outer quadrant
307. Most common location of bronchogenic carcinoma : Right upper lobe
308. Most common location of coarctation : Postductal beyond the origin of the left subclavian artery.
309. Most common location of coronary calcifications : LAD.
310. Most common location of DAI : Frontotemporal gray–white matter junction.
311. Most common location of GIST : Stomach.
312. Most common location of GU obstruction in a neonatal male : Ureteropelvic junction.
313. Most common location of intracranial dissection : Vertebral arteries.
314. Most common location of intraorbital abscess : Subperiosteal space on medial wall.
315. Most common location of intraventricular meningioma : Atrium of the lateral ventricle.
316. Most common location of oligodendroglioma : Frontal lobe.
317. Most common location of pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma : Temporal lobes.
318. Most common location of pulmonary sequestration : Posterior medial lower.
319. Most common location of PVNS : Knee.
320. Most common location of sarcoidosis in spinal cord : Cervical.
321. Most common location of the biliary embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma : CBD
322. Most common location of triquetral fracture is dorsal avulsion
323. Most common location to find a lithopedion : Adnexae
324. Most common location to see intravertebral vacuum phenomenon (Kümmell Disease) : Thoracolumbar junction
325. Most common lung infection in HIV: Bacterial pneumonia
326. Most common lung mass : Granuloma
327. Most common lysosomal storage disorder : Gaucher’s disease
328. Most common malformation associated with callosal agenesis : Dandy-Walker malformation.
329. Most common malignancy of childhood : Leukemia.
330. Most common malignancy of parotid gland in adult : Mucoepidermoid carcinoma.
331. Most common malignant abdominal neoplasm in children 1–8 years old : Wilms Tumor.
332. Most common malignant bone tumor in children : Ewings
333. Most common malignant cause of bilateral global renal enlargement : Lymphoma.
334. Most common malignant neoplasm of diaphragm : Fibrosarcoma.
335. Most common malignant neoplasm of the spleen : Lymphoma.
336. Most common malignant ovarian neoplasm : Serous adenocarcinoma.
337. Most common malignant ovarian neoplasm : Serous cystadenocarcinoma.
338. Most common malignant primary bone tumor in young adults + children : Osteosarcoma
339. Most common malignant radiation-induced tumor of the musculoskeletal system : MFH
340. Most common malignant sex cord–stromal tumor : Granulosa cell tumor
341. Most common malignant testicular neoplasm : Nonseminomatous germ cell tumors
342. Most common malignant tumor affecting ribs of children + adolescents : Ewings Sarcoma
343. Most common malignant tumor of the abdomen in patients with NF1 Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor
344. Most common malignant tumor of the duodenum : Adenocarcinoma.
345. Most common malignant tumor of the heart : Angiosarcoma
346. Most common malignant tumor of the small bowel : Carcinoid
347. Most common mammographic finding in DCIS : Microcalcifications
348. Most common mammographic finding in Infiltrating/Invasive Lobular Carcinoma : Architectural distortion.
349. Most common manifestation of asbestosis exposure : Pleural plaques
350. Most common manifestation of asbestos-related pleural disease : Pleural effusion
351. Most common manifestation of blunt chest trauma : Pulmonary contusion
352. Most common mass lesion of the cerebellopontine angle after acoustic schwannoma : Meningioma
353. Most common mediastinal germ cell tumor : Seminoma.
354. Most common mediastinal mass in a child between the ages of 6 and 12 years old : Lymphoma
355. Most common mediastinal neurogenic tumor : Schwannoma
356. Most common mesenchymal origin neoplasm of GI tract : GIST
357. Most common metabolic liver disease in children : Hepatic cirrhosis in homozygous alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency
358. Most common metastases to the spleen : Breast carcinoma
359. Most common metastasis to the heart : Melanoma
360. Most common metastatic cause of linitis plastica : Breast carcinoma
361. Most common metatarsal to have a stress fracture : Second metatarsal.
362. Most common missed type of breast cancer on mammography : Infiltrating/Invasive Lobular Carcinoma.
363. Most common mitral valve abnormality in the Western world : Non-rheumatic mitral valve disease.
364. Most common monodermal teratoma : Struma ovarii.
365. Most common motor neuron disease : ALS.
366. Most common MR imaging finding in DCIS : Non-masslike enhancement.
367. Most common mycotic pneumonia in an AIDS patient : Cryptococcus.
368. Most common natural outcome of the VSD : Spontaneous complete closure.
369. Most common neonatal cyanotic congenital heart malformation : TGV
370. Most common neonatal lesion of adrenal gland : Nontraumatic Adrenal Hemorrhage.
371. Most common neoplasm of conus medullaris : Myxopapillary Ependymoma of Spinal Cord.
372. Most common neoplasm of internal auditory canal / cerebellopontine angle : Vestibular Schwannoma.
373. Most common neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract in patients with NF1: Neurofibromas.
374. Most common nerve to be involved in tarsal tunnel syndrome : Posterior tibial nerve.
375. Most common nonepidemic meningoencephalitis in immunocompetent individuals in US : Herpes Encephalitis.
376. Most common nonepithelial malignant bladder tumor : Leiomyosarcoma.
377. Most common nonepithelial tumor in the colon : Lipoma.
378. Most common nonepithelial tumor of the bladder : Leiomyoma.
379. Most common nonglial primary tumors of the central nervous system : Meningiomas.
380. Most common nonlymphoproliferative primary malignant tumor of the spine in adults : Chordoma.
381. Most common nonlymphoproliferative primary malignant tumor of the spine in children : PNET.
382. Most common nontraumatic cause of acute limp in a child : Toxic synovitis.
383. Most common non-traumatic cause of facial nerve paralysis & hearing loss : CPA tumor.
384. Most common odontogenic mass : Odontoma= odontogenic hamartomatous malformation.
385. Most common of all alimentary tract duplications : Small Bowel Duplication Cyst.
386. Most common of cerebral vascular malformation : DVA.
387. Most common opportunistic infection in AIDS : Toxoplasmosis.
388. Most common organism involved in pancreatic abscess : E. Coli.
389. Most common organism of acute pyogenic meningitis in infants and children : N. meningitides.
390. Most common origin of cystic artery : Right hepatic artery.
391. Most common osteochondrodysplasia : Hereditary Multiple Exostoses
392. Most common ovarian neoplasm : Dermoid aka dermoid cyst = Mature cystic teratoma
393. Most common ovarian tumor-related morbidity : Bowel obstruction
394. Most common pancreatic abnormality in adult pt's with CF : Complete fatty replacement
395. Most common paraneoplastic disease associated with thymoma : Myasthenia gravis
396. Most common parasitic infection involving CNS in developing countries : Cysticercosis
397. Most common parotid disease in children : Mumps parotitis.
398. Most common pattern of bronchial arteries : Two left and one right bronchial artery
399. Most common pattern of enhancement at DE MR cardiac imaging : Patchy midwall enhancement with multiple foci
400. Most common pattern of hepatic involvement of secondary lymphoma : Diffuse infiltrative
401. Most common pattern of spread in Gallbladder Carcinoma : Direct spread.
402. Most common pediatric glioma : JPA
403. Most common pediatric tumor causing isosexual precocious puberty in a girl : Granulosa cell tumor
404. Most common phakomatoses : NF1
405. Most common pineal tumor : Pineal Germinoma
406. Most common predisposing cause to develop pneumothorax during percutaneous lung biopsy : COPD
407. Most common predisposing disorder of secondary spontaneous pneumothorax : COPD
408. Most common pregnancy-related mortality in the first trimester Ectopic pregnancy
409. Most common presentation for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis : Dyspnea
410. Most common presentation in stuck twin syndrome : Monochorionic diamniotic
411. Most common presentation of bronchoalveolar cell carcinoma (BAC) : Solitary pulmonary nodule.
412. Most common presentation of GIST on cross sectional imaging : Cystic areas of necrosis.
413. Most common presentation of mesoblastic nephroma : Palpable mass at birth.
414. Most common presentation of neurocysticercosis : Seizures.
415. Most common presenting symptom of Osler Weber Rendu : Hemoptysis.
416. Most common primary benign mesenteric tumor : Desmoid.
417. Most common primary brain tumor : GBM.
418. Most common primary cardiac tumors in adults : Myxomas.
419. Most common primary cerebellar mass in an adult : Hemangioblastoma
420. Most common primary demyelinating disease : MS
421. Most common primary female urethral malignancy : Squamous cell carcinoma
422. Most common primary hepatic neoplasm in infants and children under 5 years old: Hepatoblastoma
423. Most common primary intraocular neoplasm in adult Caucasian : Uveal Melanoma
424. Most common primary lung tumor under age 16 : Bronchial Adenoma
425. Most common primary malignant rib tumor : Chondrosarcoma
426. Most common primary malignant sacral tumor : Sacrococcygeal Chordoma
427. Most common primary malignant soft-tissue tumor of late adult life : Soft-tissue MFH
428. Most common primary neoplasm of the spleen : Cavernous hemangioma
429. Most common primary neoplasms of the anterior superior mediastinum Thymomas.
430. Most common primary posterior mediastinal neoplasms :Neurogenic tumors
431. Most common primary tumor of the diaphragm : Lipoma
432. Most common radiation-induced CNS tumor : Meningioma
433. Most common reason for cardiac transplantation : Dilated cardiomyopathy
434. Most common recognized CNS manifestation of VHL disease : Hemangioblastoma of CNS
435. Most common relevant finding on cavogram for IVC filter placement : Circumaortic left renal vein.
436. Most common renal fusion anomaly : Horseshoe kidney
437. Most common renal mass in a 3 months old infant : Mesoblastic nephroma
438. Most common respiratory cause of cold agglutinin production : Mycoplasma pneumonia
439. Most common retinal infection in AIDS : Toxoplasmosis
440. Most common right cardiophrenic angle mass : Epicardial fat-pad/lipoma
441. Most common segment involved in tracheobronchial injury : Right lower lobe bronchus.
442. Most common sex cord-stromal cell tumor : Ovarian Fibroma
443. Most common sign of failing dialysis graft : Increased venous pressures
444. Most common sign of tuberous sclerosis : Myoclonic seizures
445. Most common single cause of breast lumps in females between 35 to 55 years of age : Breast cyst
446. Most common site for an intracardiac papillary fibroelastoma : Aortic valve.
447. Most common site for aneurysm in the chest : Descending thoracic aorta.
448. Most common site for cardiac myxoma : Left atrium
449. Most common site for intra cardiac thrombus formation : Atrial appendage.
450. Most common site for optic melanoma metastases : Liver.
451. Most common site for penetrating aortic ulcers : Descending thoracic aorta
452. Most common site of abdominal involvement in Hodgkins disease : Spleen
453. Most common site of aortic dissection : Prox. Desc. Thoracic aorta near ductus lig. attachment
454. Most common site of biliary tract injury caused by blunt abdominal trauma : Gallbladder
455. Most common site of monostotic fibrous dysplasia : Ribs
456. Most common site of rupture of sinus of Valsalva aneurysm : RV followed by RA.
457. Most common solid extracranial tumor of childhood : Neuroblastoma
458. Most common spermatic cord tumor : Lipoma
459. Most common spinal cord segment of lymphoma of spinal cord : Cervical
460. Most common spinal cord tumor : Ependymoma
461. Most common spinal location for cord astrocytoma : Thoracic
462. Most common spinal location for cord ependymoma : Cervical
463. Most common subcortical degenerative disease : Parkinson’s
464. Most common subglottic soft-tissue upper resp. tract obstructing mass in neonates : Subglottic Hemangioma
465. Most common submucosal tumor in colon : Lipoma
466. Most common subtype of NHL involving the esophagus : Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
467. Most common subtype of renal cell carcinoma : Clear cell adenocarcinomas
468. Most common suprasellar mass : Craniopharyngioma
469. Most common syndromic islet cell tumor : Insulinoma
470. Most common systemic allergic hypersensitivity-related acute small-vessel vasculitis in children : HSP
471. Most common systemic fungal infection in immunocompromised patients : Candidiasis Of Liver
472. Most common tarsal bone to get fractured : Calcaneus
473. Most common tarsal coalition : Talocalcaneal
474. Most common testicular tumor in a young boy : Yolk sac tumor
475. Most common tibial plateau fractures : Lateral tibial plateau (Schatzker classification type I–III)
476. Most common trigonal intraventricular mass in adulthood : Meningioma
477. Most common tumor of adenohypophysis : Pituitary Adenoma
478. Most common tumor of genitourinary tract : Metachronous TCC
479. Most common tumor of the appendix : Carcinoid
480. Most common tumor of the esophagus : Leiomyomas
481. Most common tumor of the minor salivary glands : Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma
482. Most common type of abdominal wall hernia : Inguinal hernia
483. Most common type of ASD : Ostium secundum
484. Most common type of brain hernaition : anterior / uncal transtentorial
485. Most common type of brain herniation : Subfalcine herniation
486. Most common type of C2 fractures : Type 2
487. Most common type of cancer to arise from a thyroglossal duct cyst : Papillary carcinoma
488. Most common type of cardiomyopathy : Dilated cardiomyopathy
489. Most common type of choledochal cyst : fusiform dilatation of the extrahepatic duct Type 1c
490. Most common type of congenital internal hernia : Left paraduodenal hernia
491. Most common type of encephalocele in SE Asia: Sincipital Encephalocele
492. Most common type of encephalocele in US : Occipital Encephalocele
493. Most common type of endoleak in the abdominal aorta : Type II endoleak
494. Most common type of endoleak in the thoracic aorta : Type I endoleak
495. Most common type of fracture of the proximal 5th metatarsal bone : Peroneus brevis avulsion fracture.
496. Most common type of gallbladder inflammation : Chronic cholecystitis
497. Most common type of internal hernia : Postoperative, transmesenteric hernias.
498. Most common type of intrapulmonary involvement of Hodgkins disease : Bronchovascular form.
499. Most common type of liver abscess : Pyogenic Liver Abscess

500. Most common type of lymphoma involving the head and neck region : Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma